Types of Topologies

The different types of topology are given:-
·Bus topology
· Star topology
· Ring topology
· Tree topology

1. BUS TOPOLOGY








Fig:-1 Bus topology

Definition:-
“A bus topology is one in which all nodes (workstations and other network devices) are connected to a main cable known as "the bus" which is terminated at both ends.”

Bus topology is used in local area network and each machine is connected to a single cable. Every computer is connected to cable through difference devices. A single cable is connected each nodes of computer. It is based on broadcasting architecture in which device send the message to others devices attached with the shared cable recipient and accept the message and processes it .Ethernet bus topology is easy to implement and not required to cabling.10 Base -2 and 10 BaseT are two types of Ethernet cable are used in Bus topology .Bus topology is limited device .If 12-15 computer are added in network cables backbone become fails and un utilized. Machines connect to the bus cable until it finds out the MAC address or IP address on the bus network. Machine ignores the data if intended address is not match with the entered machine address for the data. It is easy to implement in process in bus topology than compared to other topology. The transfer rate is high than other topology. If any of the computer network is fail to perform than after network keep working without any disturbance. It is faster because of only one cable is used .It is difficult to troubleshooting in bus topology.

Advantage
1. Bus topology is simple, reliable &very easy to use.
2. If any of the computers network is failed the others computer network can be continue their regular work.
3. It is more flexible because we can connect any computer by using a hub.
4. Bus topology is best suited for small case network topology.

Disadvantage
1. Data collision is high in bus topology.
2. Easy to find the error and very hard to troubleshooting.
3. Data transmit from central wire data traffic is high.
4. Limited cable length is available limits the number of station that are connected to the computer.
5. Bus topology only can work well only for a limited number of nodes.


1. STAR TOPOLOGY




Fig:-2 star topology
Definition: -
“A networking set-up used with 10BASE-T cabling and a hub where each node on the network is connected to the hub like points of a star.”
Star topology is used in local area network; each machine is connected to main hub. Star topology is a common network topology which most of the people or company are used. Star topology is used in office, home building e.t.c is connected to main or central devices like router, hub, switch etc. it is easy to add new network in the computer and very easy to remove, so it is very flexible. Easy to diagnose fault because of using hub, switch .if hub is fail then the whole network would be down which are connected to every machine. The network is usually connected with the hub, router and switch with unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted pair cables. Star topology requires more devices and cable to complete network, compare to bus topology. If central hub is fail due to technical fault the network can be collapse i.e. the system crucially depends on host of node. It is base on the broadcasting architecture.

Advantage

1. It is easy to add new computer and remove exiting computer.
2. Easy to solve fault because of using hub..
3. It is easy to installation process and wring up.
4. By the using hub it can solve error easily.

Disadvantage

1. If central computer network is fail then hub makes whole network system become disabled.
2. It required more cable than the liner topology.
3. If the hub is fail, nodes attached are disabled.
4. It is more expensive than liners bus topology because it required more cable.

3. RING TOPOLOGY




Fig:-3 ring topology

Definition:-
“A network topology in which nodes are connected to a closed loop no terminators are required because there are no connected ends.”


Ring topology is used in local area network. Computers are connected in circular structure. The computer has special address which used for identification purpose. A signal is passes through each computer by structure position. There is no central node for making routing decisions. Communication is not dependent to single central node. The message either could be passed through clockwise or anti–clockwise. Token passing scheme which usually used to control the network .after the passing scheme only one computer can be transmit on the network at fixed time. Ring act as signal boosters which strength the signal that transverse the network. If ring network topology is fail or down the only one machine which occur the entire network down. FDDI, SONET or token are used in ring topology. It is used in like office, school, small houses and buildings. It is based on peer to peer architecture rather than broad cabling every computer has equal resources it is used .It is very difficult to find out the error and troubles hooting .The data transfer is done in one direction so there is less chance to collision and data traffic. It required more complicated control software their steer network .There is no central node for making routing decisions. Communication is not dependent to single central node.

Advantage
1. Every computer utilized the equal proportion.
2. Data travels only one direction, low chance of collision &data traffic.
3. It is not too much flexible because neither new network can be added nor existing one can be removed.
4. Token ring is creating larger networks.
5. Network server is not required to manage the connectivity between the computers.

Disadvantage

1. If any of the computers network is fail then the whole network is down.
2. It is very hard to find out the fault and resolve it.
3. It is not easy to adding new computer on the network and removing also very difficult.
4. If you change the devices and adding new thing then problem can be occur in network.




4. TREE TOPOLOGY




Fig:-4 tree topology

Definition:-
“Tree Topology is one of the local area network (LAN) topologies, in which, the network nodes are arranged as a tree.”


Tree topology also known as hierarchical networks because the tree topology arranges computer and links in to distinct hierarchical structure. Each node has special number of nodes which are connected to it at lower point in the hierarchy. The number referred as branching factor of the hierarchical tree. Tree topology is based on hierarchical topology and classified as a physical linear topology. Tree network topologies are integrated of multiple star. Hub devices only can connect directly to the tree bus and each hub are work as a root of a tree of network devices. Combination of bus, star or hybrid topology forms a new topology that is tree topology which is much better than a bus or star. If any computer fails then it effects only those machines which are under its control.

Advantages
1. Easy to wire one place to another place by separately.
2. It is supported by hardware and software
3. Through central hub enlarges the distance a signal can travel between devices.

Disadvantages
1. It is very hard to configure and wire than other topology.
2. Whole network collapses if central hub is fail to work.
3. If backbone of new process damage than the whole network is down.
4. It requires more cabling in a tree topology than others, so it is expensive.

3 Response to "Types of Topologies"

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    May 13, 2014 at 5:00 AM

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